Vitamin D as an Immunomodulatory Agent in the Prophylaxis and Management of COVID-19 Infection
Keywords:SARS-CoV-2, immunity, molecular mechanism of action, brain, lung, kidney.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new coronavirus that has quickly spread from a small incident to a worldwide epidemic, with the emergence of new variants adding to the complexity of the situation. COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, can lead to multiorgan damage, and acquire a significant threat due to its highly contagious and sometimes fatal nature. In the pursuit of effective treatment strategies, the potential role of vitamin D in modifying various facets of the innate and adaptive immune systems has come under scrutiny. This review gives a summary of the current research on the relevance of vitamin D in both the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. While some conflicting findings have been reported, a consensus emerges regarding the numerous immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D, which could hold promise in the context of COVID-19. Furthermore, it is evident that low vitamin D levels may lead to impaired antimicrobial defenses, potentially contributing to unfavorable outcomes. Studies also suggest that supplementation can mitigate the effects of vitamin D deficiency, although the controversy surrounding the use of vitamin D supplements in the treatment of COVID-19 persists
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